Category Archives: Logic
Stanley Fish makes this argument in his new book How To Write A Sentence: And How To Read One (Harper: 2011), and it defines for me something that has been morphing in my writing philosophy over the last couple of years. At some point I began shifting time away from grammatical studies and investing more time in the study of logic. I was pleased to read an author who articulated this intuitive shift. Fish writes,
Many people are put off writing because they fear committing one or more of the innumerable errors that seem to lie in wait for them at every step of composition. But if one understands that a sentence is a structure of logical relationships and that the number of relationships involved is finite, one understands too that there is only one error to worry about, the error of being illogical, and only one rule to follow: make sure that every component of your sentences is related to the other components in a way that is clear and unambiguous (unless ambiguity is what you are aiming at). (p. 20)
In other words, don’t let the fear of breaking grammatical rules stop you from writing. Seek first to make logical connections in your writing, make those connections clear, and gauge your success on how well you make them. This point is liberating to me as a writer, but more than liberating, it inspires my writing in a way that grammar cannot, since, as Fish writes, writing with an eye on logic will force your mind to think of correlations and contradictions in ways that can add new dimensions to your thinking and writing (see pp. 30-33).
Another point that Fish makes well is the importance of determining a sentence’s purpose. He asks: What is the intended effect of the sentences that we write? The question is important because there is a wide range of sentence effects that are reflected in various forms, and each form communicates something different to the reader. Too often writing instruction discusses the how of writing, but not the why.
People write or speak sentences in order to produce an effect, and the success of a sentence is measured by the degree to which the desired effect has been achieved. That is why the prescriptive advice you often get in books like Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style—write short sentences, be direct, don’t get lost in a maze of piled-up clauses, avoid the passive voice, place yourself in the background, employ figures of speech sparingly—is useful only in relation to some purposes, and unfortunate in relation to others. The first thing to ask when writing a sentence is “What am I trying to do?” … In short, pick your effect, figure out what you want to do, and then figure out how to do it. (pp. 37, 44)
Fish’s point is brilliantly illustrated a few pages later when he explains how using a short and long sentence create different effects for the reader.
Shorter sentences feel planned because they have the proverbial air of being pre-packaged. The writer is saying, “I didn’t make this up on the fly; I’m just giving form to what everyone knows.” Longer sentences can achieve a similar effect by calling attention to their own construction. The writer is saying, “I’m not just putting down whatever comes into my head; I’m giving you the ordered fruits of my considered deliberations.” (p. 48)
Can you see the difference? Short sentences proverbially restate an idea that should be familiar to the reader. On the other hand, longer sentences are better suited for communicating the inner life and the extended deliberations in the author’s mind—thoughts that are anything but proverbial and assumed, but are unique, revealing the secret thought life of the author. Paragraph-length descriptions of the effects of certain sentence styles, like the one I quote above and the others spread throughout the book, illustrate how different sentence forms accomplish different tasks, and reinforce his motto: “You shall tie yourself to forms and the forms shall set you free” (p. 33). The form is part of the message.
The bulk of the book is comprised of five chapters on subordinate sentences, additive sentences, satirical sentences, first sentences, and last sentences.
- The subordinating style: “which ranks, orders, and sequences things, events, and persons in a way that strongly suggests a world where control is the imperative and everything is in its proper place.”
- The additive style: “which gives the impression of speech and writing just haphazardly tumbling out of the mouth or the thoughts of a writer who is not worrying about getting every particular just right.”
- The satirical style: “employed as a weapon by writers who want to harpoon persons, parties, or society as a whole.”
- First sentences: are “promissory notes. Whether they foreshadow plot, sketch in character, establish mood, or jump-start arguments, the road ahead of them stretches invitingly and all things are, at least for the moment, possible.”
- Last sentences: “are more constrained in their possibilities. They can sum up, refuse to sum up, change the subject, leave you satisfied, leave you wanting more, put everything into perspective, or explode perspectives. They do have one advantage: they become the heirs of the interest that is generated by everything that precedes them; they don’t have to start the engine; all they have to do is shut it down.”
How To Write A Sentence is simple enough that you can learn the very basics of how to construct a sentence to achieve an intended effect. But Fish is also deeply perceptive of what makes a great sentence, and readers will delight in his careful exegesis of many great sentences in literary history. In this short book (162 pages) Fish serves two audiences quite well. It will inspire young writers to write clear, purposeful, sentences; and it will delight advanced writers as it breaks down great sentences. How To Write A Sentence will be added to the shelf with my favorite books on writing and frequently revisited for fresh inspiration.
Learning to Read: The Importance of Critical Thinking
I frequently get emails from my readers who want to become better readers. How, they ask, do you read so much? Let me assure you, I am no genius! (Caught off-guard, I will not be capable of producing my wife’s birth date). I know more of carpentry, concrete, and drywall than of libraries. Being born into a blue-collar family, I have accepted the fact that reading skills will be the product of supernatural grace and hard work.
Reading for most of us, like writing, is hard work. Don’t let anyone give you the impression that great writers sit and let the words flow like a waterfall onto the page. E.B. White’s famous children’s book Charolette’s Web – certainly one of the best-written books ever – underwent six major rewrites! This is astonishing, given it is an easy book for children to read and that it was written by a literary genius.
By God’s grace, the defining period of my personal growth in reading and writing came during my undergraduate studies in the liberal arts program at Bellevue University (Bellevue, NE). There I was introduced to people of every background and thought and was expected to interpret all of the discussions, readings and lectures within the concepts and principles of the critical thinking circle (developed by http://www.criticalthinking.org).
The bottom line of what I learned in those two intense years: To read and write well we must be critical thinkers and being critical thinkers demands that we successfully ask the eight specific questions of the critical thinking circle.
Back to the topic of reading.
In their short little book, How to Read a Paragraph, authors Richard Paul and Linda Elder write:
“Skilled readers do not read blindly, but purposely. They have an agenda, goal, or objective. Their purpose, together with the nature of what they are reading, determines how they read. They read in different ways in different situations for different purposes. … When we read, we translate words into meanings. The author has previously translated ideas and experiences into words. We must take those same words and re-translate them into the author’s original meaning using our own ideas and experiences as aids.”
Before I learned critical thinking I thought the key to unlocking the meaning of a book was reading each and every word. No! Unlocking the meaning and purpose of a book is first related to asking the right questions and engaging the thoughts of others.
We must come to a book with the understanding that the author was driven by an idea and wants desperately to convince you of his thought. The publisher thought the idea was worthy to print. So what is the main thought? Is there substance behind the thought? What does the next chapter build from or what has the last chapter established up to this point? What information, concepts, and presumptions does the author bring to the table? Is it clear? Is it fair? Who or what is the author arguing against (sometimes not stated)?
These type of questions are critical in reading critically.
I could go on, but there are a number of excellent and free resources on their website to explain this better. I especially like Critical Thinking & The Art of Close Reading. You can read these and other articles for free here.
Although these resources are not Christian and certainly not without errors (stay away from the booklet on “Media Bias”), I do frequently reference and recommend the following critical thinking booklets:
1. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts & Tools (foundation of the rest)
2. The Thinker’s Guide on How to Read a Paragraph
3. The Thinker’s Guide on How to Write a Paragraph
4. The Miniature Guide to The Art of Asking Essential Questions
These resources may not immediately make you a faster reader, but they will make you a better and more confident reader. The speed will come with time as your confidence builds and you naturally ask the critical thinking questions of each book.
My own grace-given personal success within a liberal arts education was a great reminder that reading skills and the Spirit-illuminated, faithful exegesis of Scripture, are advanced – not hindered – by clear critical thinking!